Microprocessor, also well known as Central Processing Unit (CPU), built-up on a single integrated circuit chip containing several components such as resistors, diodes and transistors, all of which work together. The first known microprocessor was the Intel 4004, introduced in year 1971. The 4004 microprocessor was not as much powerful; all it could do was just addition, subtraction and other mathematical operation by using only 4 bits at a time. But overall it was quite amazing that everything was on one single chip. Microprocessor stands as complete computation engine established on a single chip. They are used to performing ALU (Arithmetic Logical Unit) operations and set a communication with several other devices connected to it.
Microprocessors are generally produced from metals, quartz, silicon, and different other chemicals. Microprocessors are characterized by the size of their address bus and data bus. They are additionally assembled into CISC and RISC types. Clock speed is one of the crucial measures which determine operations per second at which the processor can perform. It is measured in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz). According to a survey done on microprocessor market, Microprocessors utilize three stages usually called Fetch, Decode, and Execute. In the Fetch step, an instruction is copied from the PC memory into the microprocessor. In the Decode step, the microprocessors make sense of what operation the guideline is intended to do. In the Execute step, this final operation is performed.
Features of a Microprocessor:
- Cost-effective: The microprocessor chips are accessible at low costs and results its minimal effort.
- Size: The microchip is of little size chip subsequently is convenient.
- Low Power Consumption: Microprocessors are fabricated by utilizing metaloxide semiconductor innovated technology, which has low power utilization.
- Versatility: The microprocessors are flexible as we can utilize a similar chip in various applications by configuring the product software program.
- Reliability: The failure rate of an IC used in microprocessors is significantly low, hence it is more reliable.